Over 230,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year. By measuring disease aggressiveness, Prolaris allows healthcare professionals and their patients to make personalized treatment decisions.
According to the American Cancer Society, more than 230,000 American men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and about 30,000 men will die of the disease in 2014. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men in the U.S., second only to skin cancer. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 66, and it is rarely found in men younger than 45.
The disease develops in a man’s prostate gland, which is a small (walnut-sized) gland in the reproductive system located under the bladder and in front of the rectum. This gland makes part of the seminal fluid that protects and nourishes sperm as it is carried out of the body during ejaculation.
The prostate surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries sperm and urine out of the body through the penis. Because of that, one common sign of prostate problems is difficulty in urinating.
What Causes Prostate Cancer?
It is not yet known what specifically causes prostate cancer. However, there are some common risk factors that may increase the chance of developing the disease.
Factors that Result in a Higher Risk of Prostate Cancer Include:*
- Age — about 60% of prostate cancers are in men over the age of 65
- Ethnicity — African-American men are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer
- Family history — men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer are at more than double the risk of developing prostate cancer
Please note that having a risk factor doesn’t mean that you will develop prostate cancer. Most men who have these risk factors never develop the disease.
What Are The Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?
In its earliest stages, prostate cancer usually grows quietly, causing no detectable signs or symptoms. Your healthcare professional can screen for prostate cancer risk during these early stages, before symptoms appear, with a simple PSA blood test. Due to PSA testing, most cancers are found before a man has had a single symptom.
Once Prostate Cancer Has Advanced, It Can Cause These Symptoms:
- Trouble starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine
- Weaker urine stream than usual
- Frequent urination
- Increased urination at night
- Painful urination
- Blood in the urine or the semen
- Swelling in the legs
- Pain or discomfort in the pelvic region
- Pain in the bones
- Difficulty achieving an erection
- Painful ejaculation
Using Molecular Testing to Guide Your Prostate Cancer Treatment**
If you are diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there are multiple treatment options, including active surveillance, surgery, radiation and androgen deprivation therapy. Determining the best treatment option for you may be challenging, since most prostate cancers are slow growing, but some grow more rapidly and are more likely to spread to other parts of the body. Clinical parameters, such as PSA and Gleason score, provide useful information on prostate cancer severity, but do not measure the true hallmark of cancer — cell proliferation.
Myriad offers a tissue-based molecular prognostic test called Prolaris® to help you and your healthcare professional understand the aggressiveness of your prostate cancer. Prolaris measures genes involved in cell proliferation, providing an individualized assessment of your prostate cancer’s aggressiveness. Understanding the aggressiveness of your tumor adds critical, independent information to help you and your healthcare professional make a more personalized decision about treatment.1-6
Learn more about Prolaris®.
*Assessment criteria are based on medical society guidelines.
**Any discussion of medical management options is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute a recommendation. While genetic testing and medical society guidelines provide important and useful information, all medical management decisions should be made based on consultation between each patient and his or her healthcare professional.
1. Cuzick, J, et al. Prognostic value of an RNA expression signature derived from cell cycle proliferation genes in patients with prostate cancer: a retrospective study. Lancet 2011: 245-255.
2. Cuzick, J, et al. Prognostic value of a cell cycle progression signature for prostate cancer death in a conservatively managed needle biopsy cohort. British J Cancer 2012:1-5:1095-1099.
3. Cooperberg MR, et al. Validation of a cell-cycle progression gene panel to improve risk stratification in a contemporary prostatectomy cohort. J Clinical Oncol 2013:31(11):1428-34.
4. Freedland SJ, et al. Prognostic utility of cell cycle progression score in men with prostate cancer after primary external beam radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol, Biol, Phys 2013:86(5):848-853.
5. Crawford ED, et al. Cell cycle progression score and treatment decisions in prostate cancer: results from an ongoing registry. Curr Med Res Opin 2014 Mar 13 [Epub ahead of print]
6. Bischoff, JT, et al. Prognostic utility of the CCP score generated from biopsy in men treated with prostatectomy. J. Urology 2014 [Epub ahead of print].